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shRNA gene silencing Human Islets of langerhans ZEB2

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Short hairpin or small hairpin RNA (shRNA) is artificial RNA, which has a hairpin loop structure, and uses inherent microRNA (miRNA) machinery to silence target gene expression. This is called RNA interference (RNAi). These can be delivered via plasmids or viral/bacterial vectors. Challenges in shRNA-mediated gene silencing include: 1. Off-target silencing, 2. Packaging shRNA encoding lentivirus, and 3. Stable transduction in cells. RNAi have been designed to have anywhere from 19-27 bs, but the most effective design has 19 bp. In case commercial shRNAs are not available, potential target sites can be chosen within exon, 5’- or 3’ UTR, depending on which splice variants of the gene are desired. One should use the latest algorithms and choose at least two different sequences, targeting different regions, in order to have confidence in overcoming off-target effects. A BLAST search after selecting potential design will eliminate potential off-target sequences. For the second challenge, sequencing the vector using primers for either strand (50-100 bp upstream) is suggested, along with using enzymatic digestion on agarose gel for the vector. Next, once the shRNA-containing vector is packaged in a virus, it is important to check the viral titer before transduction. Finally, using a marker in the lentiviral vector (fluorescent protein or antibiotic resistance), along with qPCR for target gene expression can help in determining efficacy of transduction and shRNA on its target site.

RNA shRNA gene silencing Human Islets of langerhans ZEB2 lentiviral particles

Short hairpin or small hairpin RNA (shRNA) is artificial RNA, which has a hairpin loop structure, and uses inherent microRNA (miRNA) machinery to silence target gene expression. This is called RNA interference (RNAi). These can be delivered via plasmids or viral/bacterial vectors. Challenges in shRNA-mediated gene silencing include: 1. Off-target silencing, 2. Packaging shRNA encoding lentivirus, and 3. Stable transduction in cells. RNAi have been designed to have anywhere from 19-27 bs, but the most effective design has 19 bp. In case commercial shRNAs are not available, potential target sites can be chosen within exon, 5’- or 3’ UTR, depending on which splice variants of the gene are desired. One should use the latest algorithms and choose at least two different sequences, targeting different regions, in order to have confidence in overcoming off-target effects. A BLAST search after selecting potential design will eliminate potential off-target sequences. For the second challenge, sequencing the vector using primers for either strand (50-100 bp upstream) is suggested, along with using enzymatic digestion on agarose gel for the vector. Next, once the shRNA-containing vector is packaged in a virus, it is important to check the viral titer before transduction. Finally, using a marker in the lentiviral vector (fluorescent protein or antibiotic resistance), along with qPCR for target gene expression can help in determining efficacy of transduction and shRNA on its target site.

RNA shRNA gene silencing Human Islets of langerhans ZEB1 lentiviral particles

Short hairpin or small hairpin RNA (shRNA) is artificial RNA, which has a hairpin loop structure, and uses inherent microRNA (miRNA) machinery to silence target gene expression. This is called RNA interference (RNAi). These can be delivered via plasmids or viral/bacterial vectors. Challenges in shRNA-mediated gene silencing include: 1. Off-target silencing, 2. Packaging shRNA encoding lentivirus, and 3. Stable transduction in cells. RNAi have been designed to have anywhere from 19-27 bs, but the most effective design has 19 bp. In case commercial shRNAs are not available, potential target sites can be chosen within exon, 5’- or 3’ UTR, depending on which splice variants of the gene are desired. One should use the latest algorithms and choose at least two different sequences, targeting different regions, in order to have confidence in overcoming off-target effects. A BLAST search after selecting potential design will eliminate potential off-target sequences. For the second challenge, sequencing the vector using primers for either strand (50-100 bp upstream) is suggested, along with using enzymatic digestion on agarose gel for the vector. Next, once the shRNA-containing vector is packaged in a virus, it is important to check the viral titer before transduction. Finally, using a marker in the lentiviral vector (fluorescent protein or antibiotic resistance), along with qPCR for target gene expression can help in determining efficacy of transduction and shRNA on its target site.

RNA shRNA gene silencing Human Islets of langerhans SOX2 lentiviral particles

Short hairpin or small hairpin RNA (shRNA) is artificial RNA, which has a hairpin loop structure, and uses inherent microRNA (miRNA) machinery to silence target gene expression. This is called RNA interference (RNAi). These can be delivered via plasmids or viral/bacterial vectors. Challenges in shRNA-mediated gene silencing include: 1. Off-target silencing, 2. Packaging shRNA encoding lentivirus, and 3. Stable transduction in cells. RNAi have been designed to have anywhere from 19-27 bs, but the most effective design has 19 bp. In case commercial shRNAs are not available, potential target sites can be chosen within exon, 5’- or 3’ UTR, depending on which splice variants of the gene are desired. One should use the latest algorithms and choose at least two different sequences, targeting different regions, in order to have confidence in overcoming off-target effects. A BLAST search after selecting potential design will eliminate potential off-target sequences. For the second challenge, sequencing the vector using primers for either strand (50-100 bp upstream) is suggested, along with using enzymatic digestion on agarose gel for the vector. Next, once the shRNA-containing vector is packaged in a virus, it is important to check the viral titer before transduction. Finally, using a marker in the lentiviral vector (fluorescent protein or antibiotic resistance), along with qPCR for target gene expression can help in determining efficacy of transduction and shRNA on its target site.

RNA shRNA gene silencing Human Islets of langerhans SOX6 lentiviral particles

Short hairpin or small hairpin RNA (shRNA) is artificial RNA, which has a hairpin loop structure, and uses inherent microRNA (miRNA) machinery to silence target gene expression. This is called RNA interference (RNAi). These can be delivered via plasmids or viral/bacterial vectors. Challenges in shRNA-mediated gene silencing include: 1. Off-target silencing, 2. Packaging shRNA encoding lentivirus, and 3. Stable transduction in cells. RNAi have been designed to have anywhere from 19-27 bs, but the most effective design has 19 bp. In case commercial shRNAs are not available, potential target sites can be chosen within exon, 5’- or 3’ UTR, depending on which splice variants of the gene are desired. One should use the latest algorithms and choose at least two different sequences, targeting different regions, in order to have confidence in overcoming off-target effects. A BLAST search after selecting potential design will eliminate potential off-target sequences. For the second challenge, sequencing the vector using primers for either strand (50-100 bp upstream) is suggested, along with using enzymatic digestion on agarose gel for the vector. Next, once the shRNA-containing vector is packaged in a virus, it is important to check the viral titer before transduction. Finally, using a marker in the lentiviral vector (fluorescent protein or antibiotic resistance), along with qPCR for target gene expression can help in determining efficacy of transduction and shRNA on its target site.

RNA shRNA gene silencing Human Islets of langerhans Negative control (scrambled) lentiviral particles

Get tips on using MISSION® shRNA ZEB2 Lentiviral Transduction Particles to perform shRNA gene silencing Human - Islets of langerhans ZEB2 lentiviral particles

Products Sigma-Aldrich MISSION® shRNA ZEB2 Lentiviral Transduction Particles

When extracting nucleic acids from cell cultures, thorough homogenization of cells via vortexing in lysis buffer is very necessary. Choose the best RNA isolation method keeping in mind the downstream applications, generally, column-based isolations result in clean and concentrated RNA samples. Downstream applications like sequencing and cDNA synthesis require high-quality RNA, always treat the samples with DNases and check their integrity by running a gel.

RNA RNA isolation / purification Cells primary human islets of langerhans

Get tips on using MISSION® shRNA ZEB1 Lentiviral Transduction Particles to perform shRNA gene silencing Human - Islets of langerhans ZEB1 lentiviral particles

Products Sigma-Aldrich MISSION® shRNA ZEB1 Lentiviral Transduction Particles

TUNEL assay is the cell death detection method where the biochemical marker of apoptosis is DNA fragmentation. The assay involves the microscopical detection of generated DNA fragments with free 3'-hydroxyl residues. in apoptotic cells using enzyme terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) which adds biotinylated nucleotides at the site of DNA breaks. Major challenges of this method involve proper access of the enzyme which could be hampered by poor permeabilization and/or excessive fixation with cross-linking fixative (common with archival tissue). This issue can be resolved by optimizing the incubation time with Proteinase K or CytoninTM.

Cellular assays TUNEL assay cell type Islets of langerhans (Beta cells)

Get tips on using MISSION® shRNA SOX2 Lentiviral Transduction Particles to perform shRNA gene silencing Human - Islets of langerhans SOX2 lentiviral particles

Products Sigma-Aldrich MISSION® shRNA SOX2 Lentiviral Transduction Particles
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